scinote:

Question: Why doesn’t ocean water freeze?
Asked by anonymous

Answer:
Great question! The answer boils down to three things: the salt content of the water, currents, and the volume of the ocean. Let’s go through these factors one by one.
 The important thing to remember is that the ocean can freeze, but at a lower temperature than pure water. Pure water has a freezing point of 0°C, while seawater has a freezing point of -2°C.
 Seawater has a lower freezing point because, unlike pure water that has nothing dissolved in it, seawater is a solution of salt and water. In fact, there are 35 grams of salt for every 100 grams of water in the ocean.
To understand why salt lowers the freezing point of water, we have to first understand that ice forms when energy, in the form of heat, is removed from water and the strong intermolecular bonds pull water molecules into a lattice structure. Molecules with higher energy will be less rigidly bonded to their neighbors. For example, liquid water has higher energy than solid ice.
Water is a polar solvent, which means that different ends of the molecule have different electric charges, and NaCl, or salt, is an ionic compound. When NaCl is added to the water, the intermolecular forces between water molecules are disrupted. Basically, the water molecules want to associate with NaCl more than they want to hang out with each other, making it harder for them to organize into the lattice structure we need for ice.
Ocean currents, the second factor, occur because of wind, temperature, and salinity differences between different bodies of water. Wind helps move the surface water towards the poles from equatorial regions of the globe. In addition, water movement in the deep ocean is affected by its density, which depends on the salinity and temperature of the water. Cold water is denser than warm water and will tend to sink. The upper, warmer layer of water undergoes evaporation and freezes once it reaches the poles. Both of these processes increase the salt content of the water, making it denser. This now cold and dense water sinks and continues to flow South. The motion of water within the oceans as a result of this process of thermohaline circulation prevents large-scale freezing.

Finally, it is important to consider the surface area to volume ratio of the ocean. The overall volume of the ocean is 1.3 billion cubic kilometres and the total surface area of the ocean is 361,900,000 square kilometres. Since the process of freezing occurs largely where the water meets the cooler air, a body of water with a large surface area to volume ratio freezes much faster than one with a smaller ratio. Although the ocean has a very large surface area, it also has a hefty volume, which renders its surface area to volume ratio quite small.
Sources: 
http://scied.ucar.edu/ocean-move-thermohaline-circulationhttp://sciencequestionswithchris.wordpress.com/2013/04/29/why-dont-the-oceans-freeze/http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/oceanfreeze.htmlhttp://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/solutions/faq/why-salt-melts-ice.shtmlhttp://www.pa.msu.edu/sciencet/ask_st/030492.html

Answered by Simone A., Expert Leader
Edited by Jenny H.

scinote:

Question: Why doesn’t ocean water freeze?

Asked by anonymous

Answer:

Great question! The answer boils down to three things: the salt content of the water, currents, and the volume of the ocean. Let’s go through these factors one by one.

The important thing to remember is that the ocean can freeze, but at a lower temperature than pure water. Pure water has a freezing point of 0°C, while seawater has a freezing point of -2°C.


Seawater has a lower freezing point because, unlike pure water that has nothing dissolved in it, seawater is a solution of salt and water. In fact, there are 35 grams of salt for every 100 grams of water in the ocean.

To understand why salt lowers the freezing point of water, we have to first understand that ice forms when energy, in the form of heat, is removed from water and the strong intermolecular bonds pull water molecules into a lattice structure. Molecules with higher energy will be less rigidly bonded to their neighbors. For example, liquid water has higher energy than solid ice.

Water is a polar solvent, which means that different ends of the molecule have different electric charges, and NaCl, or salt, is an ionic compound. When NaCl is added to the water, the intermolecular forces between water molecules are disrupted. Basically, the water molecules want to associate with NaCl more than they want to hang out with each other, making it harder for them to organize into the lattice structure we need for ice.

Ocean currents, the second factor, occur because of wind, temperature, and salinity differences between different bodies of water. Wind helps move the surface water towards the poles from equatorial regions of the globe. In addition, water movement in the deep ocean is affected by its density, which depends on the salinity and temperature of the water. Cold water is denser than warm water and will tend to sink. The upper, warmer layer of water undergoes evaporation and freezes once it reaches the poles. Both of these processes increase the salt content of the water, making it denser. This now cold and dense water sinks and continues to flow South. The motion of water within the oceans as a result of this process of thermohaline circulation prevents large-scale freezing.

Finally, it is important to consider the surface area to volume ratio of the ocean. The overall volume of the ocean is 1.3 billion cubic kilometres and the total surface area of the ocean is 361,900,000 square kilometres.
Since the process of freezing occurs largely where the water meets the cooler air, a body of water with a large surface area to volume ratio freezes much faster than one with a smaller ratio. Although the ocean has a very large surface area, it also has a hefty volume, which renders its surface area to volume ratio quite small.

Sources: 

http://scied.ucar.edu/ocean-move-thermohaline-circulation
http://sciencequestionswithchris.wordpress.com/2013/04/29/why-dont-the-oceans-freeze/
http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/oceanfreeze.html
http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/solutions/faq/why-salt-melts-ice.shtml
http://www.pa.msu.edu/sciencet/ask_st/030492.html

Answered by Simone A., Expert Leader

Edited by Jenny H.

beckyblackbooks:

cercia:

sam-im-a-princess:

nothing-rhymes-with-ianto:

abatchofcumber:

thetardiswantscasinit:


lokistoletheimpala:


can we talk about Legolas in the back tho


I feel like I need to rewatch the entire series just focusing on Legolas.  





It’s worth it.

Did Orlando Bloom spend the entirety of the series trolling with his facial expressions?

YES. YES HE DID.

He photobombed a series of movies
he is god

"Orlando, you know you’re in shot, right?"
"Oh, I know."

beckyblackbooks:

cercia:

sam-im-a-princess:

nothing-rhymes-with-ianto:

abatchofcumber:

thetardiswantscasinit:

lokistoletheimpala:

can we talk about Legolas in the back tho

I feel like I need to rewatch the entire series just focusing on Legolas.  

image

image

image

It’s worth it.

Did Orlando Bloom spend the entirety of the series trolling with his facial expressions?

YES. YES HE DID.

He photobombed a series of movies

he is god

"Orlando, you know you’re in shot, right?"

"Oh, I know."

(Source: jacknicholson, via harrypotter-and-lordoftherings)

dream-chaserxo:

Infused in the white bead is water from Mount Everest, the highest point on earth. In the black bead, mud from the Dead Sea, the lowest point on earth. Separating the two beads are clear beads, representative of the story we all have to tell. Life moves through cycles, find your balance.
"Sometimes you’re on top of the world, stay humble. Sometimes you’ve hit a low, stay hopeful.”

dream-chaserxo:

Infused in the white bead is water from Mount Everest, the highest point on earth. In the black bead, mud from the Dead Sea, the lowest point on earth. Separating the two beads are clear beads, representative of the story we all have to tell. Life moves through cycles, find your balance.

"Sometimes you’re on top of the world, stay humble. Sometimes you’ve hit a low, stay hopeful.

(via spookypentadiene)

Gates Millennium Scholarship

youarenotdesi:

ipayrenttothedunya:

blackstaraura:

theredshedevil:

black-american-queen:

ATTENTION HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS GRADUATING IN 2015.

Fill this out.

It is a scholarship THAT PAYS FOR ALL OF YOUR COLLEGE THROUGH GRADUATION.

I know a friend who had it, and its amazing. Four years of college — at any school of your choice in the United States. Harvard, University of Louisiana, UCLA — it COVERS IT.

Don’t go into debt for school, be part of this prestigious program.

Who is eligible?

African American, American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian Pacific Islander American and Hispanic American students with high academic and leadership promise who have significant financial need;

Spread this Black Tumblr. This better have over 1,000 notes by morning because this will literally CHANGE SOMEONE’S LIFE.

This scholarship was promoted every year at my high school you have a 3.3 gpa volunteer work school activities and you gotta write like 10 essays this scholarship pays for every level of education you wanna pursue including PHD’s. Deffff worth the effort

BOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOST!!!

I watched three people win this scholarship over the course of my time in high school and trust me, it’s one of the greatest opportunities out there for POCs. If any of my followers are still in high school, get on it!

Step to it, PoC followers. 

(via mj-the-scientist)

crohns-sucks:

neecygrace:

Today’s picture for invisible illness is a personal one. This is one of about 30 notes that my friend has received since using her handicapped placard. I’m going to say this to you, have you ever seen someone get out of a car parked in a handicapped space and said to yourself “they look too young or they don’t look disabled.” I’m going to go with yes you have, because we all have at one time. I can’t remember doing it, but before I understood the difficulties of invisible illness when I was younger I probably did. Let me ask you this though, when you had that thought was it because you knew with 100% certainty that they weren’t handicapped or did you assume that because of their age and/or not seeing a cane, walker or wheelchair? All I’m asking is that we stop and think when we someone need a mobility aid, park in a handicapped space or say they are disabled that we remember this “DISABILITY HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH AGE OR APPEARNACE.” #spoonie #invisibleillness #disability #chronicillness #rheumatoidarthritis #lupus #fibromyalgia #myofascialpainsyndrome

If nothing else, this post needs to be seen around the internet more. This harassment is not okay and no one should have to deal with it on top of having an invisible illness. This is just another form of anonymous bullying to add to the internet bullying these TROLLS are capable of.
If you are healthy, please reblog.If you are sick, please reblog.If you have a disability, please reblog.If you have an invisible illness, please reblog.If you know someone with a disability, please reblog.If you are a human being, please reblog.Let’s spread the word and help those of us that may not look like it. 
Ignorance isn’t bliss, ignorance is ignorance. 

crohns-sucks:

neecygrace:

Today’s picture for invisible illness is a personal one. This is one of about 30 notes that my friend has received since using her handicapped placard. I’m going to say this to you, have you ever seen someone get out of a car parked in a handicapped space and said to yourself “they look too young or they don’t look disabled.” I’m going to go with yes you have, because we all have at one time. I can’t remember doing it, but before I understood the difficulties of invisible illness when I was younger I probably did. Let me ask you this though, when you had that thought was it because you knew with 100% certainty that they weren’t handicapped or did you assume that because of their age and/or not seeing a cane, walker or wheelchair? All I’m asking is that we stop and think when we someone need a mobility aid, park in a handicapped space or say they are disabled that we remember this “DISABILITY HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH AGE OR APPEARNACE.” #spoonie #invisibleillness #disability #chronicillness #rheumatoidarthritis #lupus #fibromyalgia #myofascialpainsyndrome

If nothing else, this post needs to be seen around the internet more. This harassment is not okay and no one should have to deal with it on top of having an invisible illness. This is just another form of anonymous bullying to add to the internet bullying these TROLLS are capable of.

If you are healthy, please reblog.
If you are sick, please reblog.
If you have a disability, please reblog.
If you have an invisible illness, please reblog.
If you know someone with a disability, please reblog.
If you are a human being, please reblog.

Let’s spread the word and help those of us that may not look like it. 

Ignorance isn’t bliss, ignorance is ignorance. 

(via harrypotter-and-lordoftherings)

Last week, I may have gone too far. I’ll explain it quickly. Basically, I found out where he gets his clothes dry-cleaned. Custom ordered the same suit, made with tear-away velcro. And… you can fill in the rest.

(Source: theofficescreencaps, via onlylolgifs)

I’m tired of talking about feminism to men.

I’m tired of explaining to men that the feminist movement will, in fact, benefit them as well as women. I’m tired of trying to hawk gender equality like I’m some kind of car salesman showing off a shiny new sedan, explaining all of its bells and whistles. I’m tired of smiling through a thousand thoughtless microaggressions, tired of providing countless pieces of evidence, tired of being questioned on every. Single. Damn. Thing.I’m tired of proving that microaggressions exist, tired of proving that I’m unfairly questioned and asked for proof. For a movement that’s centered around the advancement and empowerment of women, why do I feel like I’m supposed to spend so damn much of my time carefully considering how what I say and do will be taken by men?

I’m tired of men who insert themselves into feminist spaces with claims of hurt feelings. I’m tired of men who somehow manage to make every issue about them. I’m tired of men like the one who recently stopped by a friend’s Facebook thread in order to call feminism “c*nty”, then lecture the women involved for being too “hostile” in their responses to him. I’m tired of men telling me that my understanding of feminism and rape culture are wrong, as if these aren’t things that I have studied intensely. I’m tired of men who claim to be feminist allies, then abuse that position to their own advantage. I’m so fucking exhausted by the fact that I know that I will have to, at some point in this piece, mention that I understand that not all men are like that. I will have to note that some men are good allies. And all of those things are true! And all of you good allies get cookies! But honestly,I’m tired of handing out cookies to people just because they’re decent fucking human beings.

So you like chemistry puns…

aceinnatailsuit:

captainriz:

imageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimage

HOW HAVE I NEVER SEEN THIS BEFORE

IT’S LIKE THE WHO’S ON FIRST OF SCIENCE JOKES

(via engrprof)

grizzlykurtz:

witchesbitchesandbritches:

lifeundefeated:

Yea it’s clearly our “generation that’s making homosexuality a trend.” Seriously, pisses me off when people say that. look at this! It’s always been around, it’s not a trend, it’s real. It’s beautiful.

These are really beautiful images.

History Lesson: In America from about 1700-1920 there was a social rule that said that women did not have a sex drive. According to men, all women ever were asexual and only ever had sex because their husbands wanted it and as a good doting wife they would open up for him. That said, lesbians flourished in this time! Because it was believed that women did not have sex, when two women would share a house and finances together (called a Boston Marriage, look it up!) nobody thought anything of it. Because clearly they werent homosexuals since clearly women were incapable of being independently sexual. The more you know!

(Source: babycocodill, via chemistthatfangirlsoverchemistry)